Stage 2: Innovation Once the text has been learnt by all children, they are ready to start innovating on the pattern of the text. Was the approach feasible? Key developmental shifts which occur in the linguistic control of writing from the early years of primary school to adolescence are detailed in the work of Christie and Derewianka and Macken-Horarik, Love, Sandiford and Unsworth Expressing and developing ideas, provide further focus for this knowledge.
However, the evaluation was not able to securely estimate the impact of the programme on academic attainment, and prior research evidence provides a mixed amount of support for the principles underlying the approach. How secure is the finding? Developing linguistic control As children progress through the primary years, linguistic changes over their control of written language become evident.
An impact evaluation was carried out. Students also need to appreciate how language works at text, sentence and word level. As teachers work with model or mentor texts, a common language for talking about language, or metalanguage, can be developed.
Schools opted to participate in the programme and intervention schools were based in one city, which limits the generalisability of findings.
However, the results of this impact evaluation must not be mistaken for those of a randomised controlled trial, and causation cannot be securely identified. No data at pupil level were available at reception and Key Stage 1. Grammar is the system of patterns and structures, a set of resources used to organise words into sentences that make meanings in texts.
The evaluators conducted a literature review of the supporting evidence for the Talk for Writing approach.