Since time is a scarce resource, the extent to which children's employment is linked to school attendance depends on the type and number of hours worked.
In many developing countries, poverty is largely, though not wholly, a rural phenomenon, and most of the rural poor are marginal farmers and agricultural laborers. Angrist and Krueger examined more recent census data from and and found that state laws requiring young people to stay in school until age 17 or 18 were effective.
In this context, historical experience from developed countries of their success in eradicating child labor and the role of laws in it is useful.
Mental health problems among labour children in the Gaza Strip Child: Care, health and development. Most of these schools are run by the NGOs in the district.
Others work because their home environment was so hostile that they ran away from home to work.
Nonetheless, regardless of discrepancies between these two sources, the trends tell a consistent story: the share of economically active children in the world has been going down for decades. However, this source is generally believed to understate the extent of child labour, since data is not collected for work inside the household not even market work.
The literature often refers to these programmes as the prime example of "collaborative measures" against child labour: non-coercive interventions that alter the economic environment of decision makers in order to make them more willing to let children stay out of work.
Additionally, India contributes 95 percent of the emeralds, 85 percent of the rubies, and 65 percent of the sapphires worldwide. The visualization below presents global trends, using estimates in two age brackets: and years of age.
There remains a generally accepted consensus that census data is likely to underestimate the scale of child labour for several reasons.